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2019考研英语长难句:名词性从句(4-2)

时间:2018-03-08 16:03:22  编辑:厚学考研网  来源:网络

   用来作宾语的句子叫做宾语从句。 宾语从句的结构:主语 + 谓语 + 从属连词、宾语(陈述句语序)。宾语从句可以分为三类:

  
  动词的宾语从句  【第1句】
  
  介词的宾语从句  【第2句】
  
  形容词的宾语从句【第3句】
  
  宾语从句的引导词 对应的句子类型 从句中的成分
  
  连词that 陈述句 在从句中不作成分
  
  连词whether, if 一般疑问句 在从句中不作成分
  
  连接副词when, where, why,how;
  
  连接代词who, whom, what, which, whose 特殊疑问句 when, where, why, how在从句中作状语;
  
  who, whom, what在从句中作主语、宾语或表语;
  
  which, whose在从句中作定语, 后面接名词连用。
  
  常用来引导宾语从句的形容词有: sure, certain, glad, please, happy, sorry, afraid, satisfied, surprised等。
  
  I am sure I will pass the exam.
  
  我确信我会通过考试.
  
  I am sorry that I have troubled you so long.
  
  很抱歉我这么长时间在打扰你.
  
  He is glad that Li Ming went to see him when he was ill.
  
  他很高兴在他生病的时候李明能去看望他.
  
  1. The supreme Court will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest. (2015 Text 2)
  
  【念念有词】
  
  I) supreme a.(权力,机构,掌权人)最高的;最强大的;最重要的;很大程度的;极度的;(处罚,牺牲)涉及死的;(因某一活动)著名的(人,物);高超的。He was nerving himself for a supreme effort.(他正在鼓励自己做出最大的努力。);On the race track he reigned supreme.(他称雄跑道。)
  
  II) content a.平静而幸福的;愉快的;满意的;满足的;安于现状的;v.使满意;使满足;n.满意;满足;容纳物;包含物;内容;含量,成分;目录。He seemed more content, less bitter.(他似乎高兴了点,不再那么痛苦。);He had to be content with third place.(他不得不满足于季军的位置。);He picked up the correspondence and scanned the contents.(他把信捡了起来,看了一下内容。)
  
  III) warrant n.逮捕证;搜查证;授权令;退货(款)凭单;接受服务单据;正当理由;依据;v. 证明(某个行动过程)正当(或必要);正式确认;保证。Magistrates issued a warrant for his arrest.(治安官签发了一份逮捕他的逮捕证。);There is no warrant for this assumption.(这个假设没有依据。);There is not enough new evidence to warrant a reference to the Court of Appeal.(还没有足够的新证据证明有必要提交给上诉法院。)
  
  IV) arrest v.逮捕;阻挡(进程);抑制;吸引(某人的)注意;n.逮捕;运动的中止(或忽然停止)。The police arrested him for possession of marijuana.(警方因他携带有大麻而将其逮捕。);The church’s stillness arrested her.(教堂的寂静吸引了她。)
  
  【句理力争】
  
  The supreme Court will now consider whether是句子主干,whether引导宾语从句,作谓语will consider的宾语,without a warrant是方式状语,if the phone is...是条件状语从句。
  
  【译译生辉】
  
  最高法院正在考虑是否允许警察在没有搜查令的情况下,查看被捕者身上或身边手机中的内容。
  
  2. In the idealized version of how science is done, facts about the world are waiting to be observed and collected by objective researchers who use the scientific method to carry out their work. ( 2012 Text 3)
  
  【念念有词】
  
  I) idealize vt. 使理想化;理想化地描述。Helen’s idealized accounts of their life together.(海伦对他们共同生活的理想化描述。);idealization n. 理想化;被理想化的事物。
  
  II) version n. 描述,说法,看法;译文,译本;变形,变体;版本;改写本。v. 创制...的新版本;更新...的版本。We fed them four unidentified samples of cola one at a time, regular colas for one group, diet versions for the others.(我们让他们喝四种没有任何标记的可乐样品,一次一种,一组喝常规型可乐,其余几组喝低糖型可乐。)The English version will be published next year.(英译本将于明年出版。)【同义词】description,account,translation。
  
  III) observe v. 看到,注意到,察觉到;(尤指为科学目的的)观察,观测;评论,评述;履行;遵守,遵奉,遵从。Officers observed him driving at 90 miles per hour.(警察看到他以每小时90英里的速度开车。)It was observed that 40 percent of patients had high blood pressure.(据观察,40%的病人有高血压。)A tribunal must observe the principles of natural justice.(法庭必须遵奉自然公正的原则。)
  
  IV) objective n. 目的,目标;宾格;a. 客观的;宾格的。to meet / achieve your objectives 达到/实现你的目标;I find it difficult to be objective where he's concerned.(只要涉及到他,我就难以做到保持客观。)
  
  【句理力争】
  
  本句的主干为….facts….are waiting to be observed and collected. In the idealized version of how science is done为全句的状语,其中of how science is done为of引导的介词短语作version的后置定语,how引导的名词性从句作介词of的宾语。介词短语about the world 作主语facts的后置定语,不定式的被动语态结构to be observed and collected by objective researchers作waiting的宾语。objective researchers后面跟随一个由who引导的定语从句修饰researchers,关系代词在从句中作主语。
  
  【译译生辉】
  
  科学是怎么样进行的,最理想化的版本是世界上所有的事实,都在等待实事求是的研究人员去观察和收集,他们会用科学的方法去开展工作。
  
  3.To those who are unaware that animal research was needed to produce these treatments, as well as new treatments and vaccines, animal research seems wasteful at best and cruel at worst. (2003 Text3)
  
  【念念有词】
  
  I) wasteful a. 浪费的。【速记】waste (n. 浪费)+ -ful (形容词后缀)【搭配】be wasteful of sth
  
  II) at best 充其量,至多; 说的好听点。
  
  III) at worst 在最坏的情况下;说得难听点。 This policy, they say, is at best confused and at worst non-existent. (有人说这项政策往好里说是混乱不堪,往坏里说就是形同虚设。)
  
  【句理力争】
  
  本句的主干为To those, animal research seems wasteful at best and cruel at worst. 该句子的特点是一个比较长的介词短语To those(对于那些人...来说)在句中充当状语。Those后接who引导的定语从句,定语从句中又嵌套了一个形容词unaware的宾语从句。
  
  【译译生辉】
  
  对于那些不明白获得这些治疗方法以及其他新的治疗方法和疫苗都必须进行动物研究的人来说,动物研究说得好听一点是浪费,说得难听一点是残忍。
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