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2019年考研英语长难句:名词性从句(4-1)

时间:2018-03-08 16:05:10  编辑:厚学考研网  来源:网络

   名词性从句

  
  在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词性从句(Nominal Clauses)。名词性从句的功能相当于名词词组,它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等,因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名词性从句又可分为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同谓语从句。
  
  主语从句
  
  作句子主语的从句叫主语从句。主语从句通常由从属连词that,whether,if和连接代词what,who,which,whatever,whoever以及连接副词how,when,where,why等词引导。that在句中无词义,只起连接作用;连接代词和连接副词在句中既保留自己的疑问含义、又起连接作用,在从句中充当从句的成分。例如:
  
  What he wants to tell us is not clear.
  
  他要跟我们说什么,还不清楚.
  
  Who will win the match is still unknown.
  
  谁能赢得这场比赛还不得而知.
  
  1. 由that 引导的主语从句可以直接放句首
  
  That the seas are being overfished has been known for years.(2006 text3)
  
  海洋正在被人们过度捕捞,许多年以来这已是尽人皆知的事情了。
  
  That such a conjunction of circumstances might occur again soon, especially considering shrinking US defense budgets and diminishing overseas base access,is problematical at best.
  
  至于在近期内能否再次出现这种各个情况巧合的局面,即使最乐观的看法也是值得怀疑的,尤其是考虑到美国国防预算缩减和海外基地减少的情况。
  
  2. 有时为避免句子头重脚轻,常用形式主语it代替主语从句作形式主语放于句首,而主语从句置于句末.主语从句后的谓语动词一般用单数形式.常用句型如下:【第1句】
  
  (1) It + be + 名词 + that从句
  
  (2) It + be + 形容词 + that从句
  
  (3) It + be + 动词的过去分词 + that从句
  
  (4) It + 不及物动词 + that 从句
  
  It’s a pity that he didn’t come.
  
  很遗憾他没来。
  
  It was intended that you be the candidate.
  
  大家的意图是让你当候选人。
  
  It is obvious that the strength of a country’s economy is directly bound up with the efficiency of its agriculture and industry, and that this in turn rests upon the efforts of scientists and technologists of all kinds.
  
  很显然,一个国家的经济实力与其工农业生产效率密切相关,而效率的提高又有赖于各类科技人员的努力。
  
  3. whether以及连接代词或连接副词引导的主语从句 【第2句】
  
  It is known to us how he became a writer.
  
  我们都知道他是如何成为一名作家的.
  
  Where the English evening will be held has not yet been announced.
  
  英语晚会将在哪里举行,还没有宣布.
  
  Whether the eyes are “the windows of the soul” is debatable; that they are intensely important in interpersonal communication is a fact.
  
  眼睛是否是“心灵的窗口”,这还有争议;但无疑,眼睛在人际交流中有着重要的作用。
  
  1. Second, it is surely a good thing that the money and attention come to science rather than go elsewhere. It is fair to criticize and question the mechanism—that is the culture of research, after all—but it is the prize-givers’ money to do with as they please. (2014 Text 3)
  
  【念念有词】
  
  I) attention n. 注意力;留心;关心;照料;【军】立正。My attention was diverted for a moment by the accident.(我的注意力在事故发生的一瞬间被转移了)。attract/receive/enjoy attention (吸引/得到关注) draw/call attention to sth. (引起注意)。
  
  II) criticize v. 批评;评论;非难,指责。The government has been criticized for not taking the problem seriously.(政府因为没有认真对待问题而受到批评。)criticize sb./sth. for (doing) sth. He has been criticized for incompetence.(他因为不称职而受到批评。)
  
  III) mechanism n. 机械,机械装置;机制;(文学作品情节的)手法;技巧。mechanisms for dealing with complaints from the general public(处理来自公众的投诉机制。)
  
  【句理力争】
  
  本句的考点是形式主语it作主语,真正的主语是that the money and attention come to science rather than go elsewhere。该主语从句的结构为:it形式主语+谓语+that从句。主语还原后的句子为That the money and attention come to science rather than go elsewhere is surely a good thing,主语太长,显得句子冗长不平衡,就把主语调到that后,用it形式主语代替真正的主语。注:(1)为避免头重脚轻,常以形式主语it引导从句。(2)由于主语从句一般被认为是单数形式,形式主语的谓语动词、be动词+表语均为单数第三人称形式或过去式。
  
  【译译生辉】
  
  第二,资金和注意力能够投入到科学领域而非其他方面,这自然是一件好事。要批评和质疑这种机制也并非不公——毕竟,这是一种研究文化——但是,这是奖项设立者自己的钱,他们可以随意支配。
  
  2. However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is, as yet, an unanswered question.(2005 text1)
  
  【念念有词】
  
  I) fairness n. 公平;美好;清晰;顺利性 。procedural fairness (程序公正) service fairness (服务公平性)Our teacher is known for her fairness in grading pupils.  (我们的老师以给学生评分公平著称。)
  
  II) evolve vt. 发展,进化;进化;使逐步形成;推断出vi. 发展,进展;进化;逐步形成。 evolve into (逐渐发展成 ; 演化成 ; 演变成 ;evolve develop (进展发展)We did not evolve, because machines and society did it for us. (我们没有进化。 因为机器和社会替我们办了这一切。)
  
  III) stem n. 干;茎;船首;血统vt. 阻止;除去…的茎;给…装柄vi. 阻止;起源于某事物;逆行All my problems stem from drink.(我所有的问题都是酗酒引起的。)
  
  【句理力争】
  
  该句是一个主语从句,句子的主语whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago,是两个并列的句子充当主语。谓语动词为is ,表语为an unanswered question。as yet 是插入语。
  
  【译译生辉】
  
  但是这种公平感是从卷尾猴和人类身上各自演化而来,还是来源于三千五百万年以前他们共同的祖先,至今仍是个有待回答的问题。
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